بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) containing gum acacia (GA), poly(methacrylic acid) (MAA), and poly(acrylic acid) (AA) was developed using a two-step aqueous polymerization method. Firstly, semi-IPNs were produced by radical polymerization of MAA chains onto GA in the presence of ammonium persulfate as a free radical initiator and N, N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linking agent using a microwave heating. To obtain a semi-IPN with a higher swelling percentage, several reaction parameters such as initiator, monomer, and crosslinker concentrations were varied. The percentage swelling (%S) was highly dependent upon the reaction conditions. The optimal reaction conditions for maximal %S were 2.55 × 10–2 mol/L initiator concentration, 12 mL solvent, 0.424 × 10–3 mol/L of monomer, and 2.16 × 10–2 mol/L cross-linker concentration, according to the findings. GA-g-poly(MAA) was the name to given to the semi-IPN. Second, IPN was created by grafting AA chains onto a GA-g-poly(MAA) matrix that had been optimized. The IPN was named as a GA-g-poly(MAA-IPN-AA). The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by heating the mixture of flower extract of Koelreuteria apiculate under microwave radiation.
Hydrogels are three-dimensional (3D) networks formed by the crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers [1, 2]. They might swell while maintaining their network structure by absorbing signifcant amounts of water or biological fluids. The inclusion of hydrophilic groups such as -OH, -CONH, -CONH2, -COOH, and -SO3H along the polymer chain contributes to their ability to absorb a large amount of water . Polysaccharide hydrogel networks have received a lot of attention in recent years [3–5]. The physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels frequently differ significantly from those of the macromolecular constituents. Hydrogel characteristics can also be altered utilizing a range of physical and chemical crosslinking techniques [3, 6]. Various researchers have examined a number of polymeric systems to create hydrogels . The polymer composition can be classified as natural polymeric hydrogels, synthetic polymer hydrogels, and or a combination of both . Because of their non-toxicity, low cost, permeability, and biocompatibility, hydrogels have gotten a lot of attention in a variety of sectors [8–10].
Antimicrobial materials have been studied extensively in response to rising microbial resistance to traditional antibiotics and disinfectants. Natural polysaccharidebased hydrogels and their composites containing metal nanoparticles could be suitable for antibacterial applications in some cases. Using a microwave irradiation approach, we were able to successfully synthesis GA-gpoly(MAA) and GA-g-poly(MAA-IPN-AA) based hydrogels from GA. APS and MBA being used as initiator and cross-linker, respectively. To achieve maximum %S of semi-IPN (588%) and IPN (500%), diferent parameters were optimized. The formation of cross-linked hydrogels and hydrogel composites with AgNPs was successfully demonstrated using FTIR analysis. The SEM investigation of hydrogel networks reveals a variety of morphologies, which could be attributed to structural diferences between semi-IPN, IPN, and their composites with AgNPs. SemiIPN, IPN and their composite showed superb antibacterial potential against E. coli, M. luteus, P. aeruginosa, Rihzobium species, and S. aureus, and may be used to treat a variety of infected efuents. Such interconnected hydrogels will give superior material properties, particularly in biomedical research, to prevent biomaterialassociated infections as well as general pathogenic invasions into the body. The synthesized hydrogel samples will lead to enhanced applications in the future, as well as a deeper knowledge of material interactions. The eforts to improve the property profle of cross-linked hydrogels are still on, with the hope of improving overall performance in terms of water uptake capacity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability.