بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
This study proposes a novel theoretical model on the negative effect of the perceived cognitive threat and fear of COVID-19 on full board hotel booking intentions, which includes the moderating effects of perceived coping efficacy and present-hedonism orientation. The model was tested with a representative online sample (N = 400) of the Spanish population older than 35 years. The results confirmed negative effects of threat and fear of COVID-19 on hotel booking intentions, as well as a negative moderating effect of perceived coping efficacy on the influence of fear of COVID-19. However, coping efficacy did not moderate the effect of perceived cognitive threat on hotel booking intentions. The present-hedonism orientation positively affected full board hotel booking intentions, but did not, however, reduce the negative effect of threat or fear on those intentions. The findings provide new insights for hospitality managers that can contribute to accelerate the recovery of the hospitality industry.
Health crises, such as outbreaks generated by infectious diseases, can have a significant negative impact on tourism (Pine and McKercher, 2004, Sánchez-Cañizares et al., 2020). In comparison to other pandemics, the SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented consequences on the tourism industry across the globe (Kock et al., 2020, Pillai et al., 2021). Health measures taken by governments to minimize the spread of the virus, such as lockdowns or quarantining, or people’s decisions to avoid public spaces for fear of contagion, have had unfortunate impacts on the hospitality industry (Gursoy and Chi., 2020). The hospitality sector has been globally one of the most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic (Rather, 2021, Sánchez-Cañizares et al., 2020, Yu et al., 2020). The present study focuses on Spain, which was the world’s second most-visited nation in the year before the pandemic started and is one of the European countries that has been strongly affected by the pandemic in terms of number of contagions and mortality rate (Hernández-López et al., 2021). Also, by 2020, the profitability of the Spanish hospitality industry had decreased 66% in comparison to the previous year (Statista, 2020). According to EY (2020), hospitality is one of the most important sectors in Spain due to its contribution to the country’s economy, representing 6.2% of the gross domestic product, which is a higher proportion than in most European countries. All-inclusive full board hotels are particularly popular in Spain. In 2019, almost 84 million foreign tourists visiting Spain stayed in a full board hotel (INE, 2020). These hotels are mainly used by leisure travelers for vacations, and they often include entertainment activities.
The correlations of all variables are shown in Table 2. The results confirmed a significant negative relationship between perceived threat from COVID-19 and booking intention (r = −0.44, p < .01), and a significant negative relationship between perceived fear of COVID-19 and booking intention (r = −0.33, p < .01). The results also confirmed a significant positive relationship between fear and threat (r = 0.57, p < .01), a significant positive relationship between perceived coping efficacy and booking intention (r = 0.18, p < .01), and a significant positive relationship between present-hedonism orientation and booking intention (r = 0.25, p < .01).