نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Tourism sector stays in the limelight, especially because of the economic benefits that it provides to the state. Therefore, it is observed that an important part of the literature studies on tourism are related to the economic aspects of tourism. Kazakhstan, which has a very large potential for tourism, has tried to evaluate these values as much as possible and has given place to tourism in the development plans. In this study have been studied effects of tourism sector on the economy of Kazakhstan since independence in 1991. Share of tourism in total fixed capital, projects which are encouraged in the tourism sector, foreign investments in tourism, the ratio of tourism expenditures to expenditure on imports, contribution of tourism revenues to GDP, basic economic impact of tourism revenue and expenditure balance are considered under the scope of study.
Tourism is an industry growing in accordance with globalization and among the fastest together with automotive, petroleum and chemicals industries. On the other hand, because of positive effects of tourism such as supporting balance of payments by creating foreign currency inflow, creating employment, and supporting foreign trade, infrastructure and superstructure; its development is encouraged not only by developing countries but also developed countries. Like many other Central Asian countries that opened their doors to the world in accordance with political developments and changes in the world, Kazakhstan is trying to determine her economical choices and priorities through macro economical plans in order to meet her limitless needs with her limited resources (Dracheva, 2007). Today, the exports of Kazakhstan are consisted mainly of raw materials and she has little control over export prices. Hence, Kazakhstan Government is recently trying to develop sectors other than energy with the aim of creating economic diversity and breaking her overdependence to petroleum and fluctuations in international petroleum prices. The economic development program prepared by Kazakhstan Government covers 7 sectors and tourism ranks high in the list (www.tugik.org.tr/…/kazakistan). The data of World Trade Organization predicts that rich tourists will prefer Asian destinations to European ones (http://www2.unwto.org/). Kazakhstan’s position as economic and political leader of Central Asia is giving her an advantage to develop tourism.